The Crucible of Coking Coal: Indian Steel Mills Push for Price Reform and Market Fairness

The Indian steel industry, a vital pillar of the nation’s economic growth, is facing a heat wave of a different kind. It’s not the scorching summer temperatures, but the volatile and allegedly manipulated prices of coking coal, a crucial raw material for steelmaking, that have steel mills sweating. This simmering discontent has reached a boiling point, with the Indian Steel Association (ISA), representing major players like JSW, Tata Steel, and SAIL, urging the government to intervene in the coking coal price indexing process.

The Allegations Indian Steel : A Subjective Index, Inflated Prices, and Unfair Practices


The ISA’s primary concern is the dominance of international price indexes like Platts and Argus in determining coking coal prices. These indexes, they claim, are “subjective” and do not reflect the true market dynamics. They argue that:

  • Price Discovery Distortion: The indexes are based on a tiny portion of actual transactions, as low as 4-6% of the market. This small sample size, easily susceptible to manipulation, can inflate the perceived price of coking coal, leading to higher import costs for Indian steel mills.
  • Phantom Deals: The inclusion of “deals” between coal suppliers and their affiliates, or even trader-to-trader bids with no actual transactions, further muddles the price discovery process. These phantom deals artificially inflate the index and put Indian mills at a disadvantage.
  • Long-Term Contract Dependence: Nearly 94-96% of coking coal contracts are pegged to the average monthly index price of the previous month. This creates a vicious cycle, where inflated index prices lead to even higher long-term contract costs for steel mills.

The Impact: A Squeezed Industry and A Threatened Dream


The consequences of these alleged unfair practices are far-reaching. High coking coal prices put Indian steel mills at a competitive disadvantage in the global market. This not only hurts their profitability but also jeopardizes the government’s ambitious vision of making India a “steel powerhouse.” The volatility in prices also creates uncertainty for investors and hinders long-term planning.

The Call to Action: Government Intervention and Market Reform

The ISA has urged the government to take decisive action to address these issues. Their demands include:

  • Suo Moto Case under Competition Law: An investigation by the Competition Commission of India (CCI) to determine if the practices of these price index providers violate fair competition laws.
  • India-Specific Coking Coal Index: Exploring the development of an India-specific coking coal index that better reflects the domestic market dynamics and reduces reliance on international indexes.
  • Transparency and Price Discovery Reforms: Implementing measures to ensure greater transparency in the price discovery process and eliminate the influence of phantom deals and market manipulations.

Beyond Coking Coal: A Wider Call for Resource Security

The ISA’s concerns go beyond coking coal. They have also highlighted the need to secure the supply of other critical raw materials like iron ore. The CCI, in a recent study, echoed this concern, discouraging iron ore exports and emphasizing the need to prioritize domestic steel production.

The Road Ahead: A Balancing Act between Growth and Fairness

Finding the right balance between securing domestic steel production and fair market competition is a complex challenge. The government must tread carefully, ensuring that any intervention does not stifle market efficiency but also protects the interests of Indian steel mills and consumers. Open dialogue and collaboration between the government, industry players, and independent market researchers are crucial in finding a sustainable solution.

Conclusion: Can the Crucible Be Cooled?

The Indian steel industry stands at a crossroads. The volatility and alleged unfair practices in coking coal pricing threaten to derail its growth trajectory. However, the ISA’s call to action and the government’s potential intervention offer a glimmer of hope. By working together to reform the market, ensure transparency, and secure critical resources, India can ensure its steel industry continues to glow, not just in terms of production but also in terms of fairness and competitiveness.

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